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The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale is a 1 to 5 rating based only on a hurricane's maximum sustained wind speed. This scale does not take into account other potentially deadly hazards such as storm surge, rainfall flooding, and tornadoes.The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale estimates potential property damage. While all hurricanes produce life-threatening winds, hurricanes rated Category 3 and higher are known as major hurricanes*. Major hurricanes can cause devastating to catastrophic wind damage and significant loss of life simply due to the strength of their winds. Hurricanes of all categories can produce deadly storm surge, rain-induced floods, and tornadoes. These hazards require people to take protective action, including evacuating from areas vulnerable to storm surge. *In the western North Pacific, the term "super typhoon" is used for tropical cyclones with sustained winds exceeding 150 mph.


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The scale() CSS function defines a transformation that resizes an element on the 2D plane. Because the amount of scaling is defined by a vector, it can resize the horizontal and vertical dimensions at different scales. Its result is a data type.

\n The scale() CSS function defines a transformation that resizes an element on the 2D\n plane. Because the amount of scaling is defined by a vector, it can resize the horizontal and vertical dimensions at\n different scales. Its result is a data type.\n

The scale CSS property allows you to specify scale transforms individually and independently of the transform property. This maps better to typical user interface usage, and saves having to remember the exact order of transform functions to specify in the transform value.

The following example shows how to scale an element on hover. Two boxes are shown, one with a single scale value which scales the element along both axes. The second box has two scale values which scales the element along the X and Y axes independently.

\n The following example shows how to scale an element on hover.\n Two boxes are shown, one with a single scale value which scales the element along both axes.\n The second box has two scale values which scales the element along the X and Y axes independently.\n

DOE issued a Request for Information (RFI) in 2018 soliciting stakeholder feedback on opportunities to enable high volume production and multi-sector use of hydrogen. The objective of this RFI was to assess the domestic resources compatible with large-scale hydrogen production, as well as to identify pathways to effectively leverage these resources for near- and long-term use in major industries. View the past RFI.

Understanding how Earth Engine handles scale is crucial to interpreting scientific results obtained from Earth Engine. Here, scale means pixel resolution. Unlike other GIS and image processing platforms, the scale of analysis is determined from the output, rather than the input. Specifically, when you make a request for results, an image to display or a statistic, for example, you specify the scale at which data is input to the analysis. This concept is illustrated in Figure 1.

Image assets in Earth Engine exist at multiple scales, in image pyramids. The pyramiding policy (represented by dashed lines in Figure 1) determines how each pixel at a given level of the pyramid is computed from the aggregation of a 2x2 block of pixels at the next lower level. For continuous valued images, the pixel values of upper levels of the pyramid are the mean of pixels at the next lower level. For discrete valued images, pixel values of upper levels of the pyramid are a sample (usually the top left pixel) of pixels at the next lower level.

The lowest level of the image pyramid represents image data at native resolution, when it is ingested into Earth Engine. During ingestion, the data are aggregated (according to the pyramiding policy) to create higher pyramid levels. The data are aggregated until the entire image fits within a 256x256 pixel tile. When you use an image in your code, Earth Engine chooses a level of the pyramid with the closest scale less than or equal to the scale specified by your analysis and resamples (using nearest neighbor by default) as necessary.

Scale of analysis in Earth Engine is determined on a "pull" basis. The scale at which to request inputs to a computation is determined from the output. For example, if you add an image to the map with Map.addLayer(), the zoom level of the map in the Code Editor determines the scale at which inputs are requested from the image pyramid. For other computations, you specify scale as an argument. For example, using the NIR band of a Landsat image, which has 30 meters native resolution:

In this example, note that the pixel value at a constant location (the image centroid) varies based on scale. This is due to the fact that different pyramid levels are selected for different scales. For similar scales, nearest neighbor resampling results in the same pixel value being returned. The important point is that by varying the scale, different image inputs are requested.

Scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha. Of dramatically variable appearance and extreme sexual dimorphism, they comprise the infraorder Coccomorpha which is considered a more convenient grouping than the superfamily Coccoidea due to taxonomic uncertainties. Adult females typically have soft bodies and no limbs, and are concealed underneath domed scales, extruding quantities of wax for protection. Some species are hermaphroditic, with a combined ovotestis instead of separate ovaries and testes. Males, in the species where they occur, have legs and sometimes wings, and resemble small flies. Scale insects are herbivores, piercing plant tissues with their mouthparts and remaining in one place, feeding on sap. The excess fluid they imbibe is secreted as honeydew on which sooty mold tends to grow. The insects often have a mutualistic relationship with ants, which feed on the honeydew and protect them from predators. There are about 8,000 described species.

The oldest fossils of the group date to the Early Cretaceous, preserved in amber. They were already substantially diversified by this time suggesting an earlier origin during the Triassic or Jurassic. Their closest relatives are the jumping plant lice, whiteflies , phylloxera bugs and aphids. The majority of female scale insects remain in one place as adults, with newly hatched nymphs, known as "crawlers", being the only mobile life stage, apart from the short-lived males. The reproductive strategies of many species include at least some amount of asexual reproduction by parthenogenesis.

Some scale insects are serious commercial pests, notably the cottony cushion scale (Icerya purchasi) on Citrus fruit trees; they are difficult to control as the scale and waxy covering protect them effectively from contact insecticides. Some species are used for biological control of pest plants such as the prickly pear, Opuntia. Others produce commercially valuable substances including carmine and kermes dyes, and shellac lacquer. The two red colour-names crimson and scarlet both derive from the names of Kermes products in other languages.

The group is extremely sexually dimorphic; female scale insects, unusually for Hemiptera, retain the immature external morphology even when sexually mature, a condition known as neoteny. Adult females are pear-shaped, elliptical or circular, with no wings, and usually no constriction separating the head from the body. Segmentation of the body is indistinct, but may be indicated by the presence of marginal bristles. Legs are absent in the females of some families, and when present vary from single segment stubs to five-segmented limbs. Female scale insects have no compound eyes, but ocelli (simple eyes) are sometimes present in Margarodidae, Ortheziidae and Phenacoleachiidae. The family Beesoniidae lacks antennae, but other families possess antennae with from one to thirteen segments. The mouthparts are adapted for piercing and sucking.[2]

Hermaphroditism is very rare in insects, but several species of Icerya exhibit an unusual form. The adult possesses an ovotestis, consisting of both female and male reproductive tissue, and sperm is transmitted to the young for their future use. The fact that a new population can be founded by a single individual may have contributed to the success of the cottony cushion scale which has spread around the world.[5]

Female scale insects in more advanced families develop from the egg through a first instar (crawler) stage and a second instar stage before becoming adult. In more primitive families there is an additional instar stage. Males pass through a first and second instar stage, a pre-pupal and a pupal stage before adulthood (actually a pseudopupa, as only holometabolous insects have a true pupa).[2]

The first instars of most species of scale insects emerge from the egg with functional legs, and are informally called "crawlers". They immediately crawl around in search of a suitable spot to settle down and feed. In some species they delay settling down either until they are starving, or until they have been blown away by wind onto what presumably is another plant, where they may establish a new colony. There are many variations on such themes, such as scale insects that are associated with species of ants that act as herders and carry the young ones to protected sites to feed. In either case, many such species of crawlers, when they moult, lose the use of their legs if they are female, and stay put for life. Only the males retain legs, and in some species wings, and use them in seeking females. To do this they usually walk, as their ability to fly is limited, but they may get carried to new locations by the wind.[2] 041b061a72


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