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A concentrate is a form of substance that has had the majority of its base component (in the case of a liquid: the solvent) removed. Typically, this will be the removal of water from a solution or suspension, such as the removal of water from fruit juice. One benefit of producing a concentrate is that of a reduction in weight and volume for transportation, as the concentrate can be reconstituted at the time of usage by the addition of the solvent.


Most sodas and soft drinks are produced as highly concentrated syrups and later diluted with carbonated water directly before consumption or bottling. Such concentrated syrups are sometimes retailed to the end-consumer because of their relatively low price and considerable weight savings. Condensed milk is also produced for transport weight savings and resistance to spoilage.

Using flammable solvents is popular because the products have high THC levels,1 users report longer-lasting effects,1 and it is a relatively inexpensive and efficient production method.2 Butane is a commonly used solvent, producing the potent marijuana concentrate butane hash oil (BHO).2

The terms used to describe these products vary. Concentrates is a broad term referring to all products that have been extracted from the plant. Although extracts and concentrates are often used interchangeably, some people define extracts as products manufactured using solvents, but not those pulled from the plant with non-solvent methods. Dabs may refer to products made exclusively from butane hash oil; however, the term is sometimes used colloquially for concentrates extracted in other ways. There are also post-production methods that lead to further variations in products and terms.3

In addition, contaminants in concentrate products may be cause for concern. One study noted that 80% of tested concentrate samples were contaminated in some form, not only with pesticides (which is also a concern for dried bud), but also with residual solvents that were not fully purged in the manufacturing process. Users of BHO, for example, likely inhale some butane and other impurities along with the vaporized THC.2 It is important to note that direct inhalation of concentrated butane among recreational inhalant users carries multiple risks, including reported deaths.7 However, it is unclear what negative health outcomes result from the inhalation of residual butane, other solvents, or leftover contaminants during the dabbing process.

When solvents are used to produce concentrates, the preparation process itself can be dangerous. A number of people using butane to make extracts at home have caused fires and explosions and have been seriously burned.8 A study conducted in 2015 looking at implications from marijuana legalization in Colorado reported that in a 2-year period the University of Colorado burn center saw a substantial increase in the number of flash burns that occurred during amateur THC extraction using butane, some involving more than 70% of body surface area and most requiring skin grafting.9

What is concentrating solar-thermal power (CSP) technology and how does it work? CSP technologies use mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver. The energy from the concentrated sunlight heats a high temperature fluid in the receiver.

Concentrating solar-thermal power systems are generally used for utility-scale projects. These utility-scale CSP plants can be configured in different ways. Power tower systems arrange mirrors around a central tower that acts as the receiver. Linear systems have rows of mirrors that concentrate the sunlight onto parallel tube receivers positioned above them.

Midnight Recovery Concentrate is formulated with both Botanical and Essential oils. Botanical oils are oils obtained from plants that are fatty, dense, and non-volatile, such as olive and sweet almond oil. Such plants contain a significant number of proteins, vitamins, and skin-compatible lipids like Squalane. Botanical oils strengthen the skin barrier, to prevent skin from water loss and diminish penetration of environmental aggressors, while essential oils protect the skin from oxidative and environmental stress. Essential oils is a concentrated liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants, which are called aromatic herbs or aromatic plants. The term "essential" indicates that the oil carries the distinctive scent (essence) of the plant. Most commonly, the essence is extracted from the plant using a technique called steam distillation. Naturally cultivated and steam-distilled, these pure oils are extracted from natural sources.

Due to its wide range of therapeutic indications approximately 2.5 million adults and children are currently receiving vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy in the US (Pengo et al., 2006). Bleeding is the major risk of anticoagulation, with an incidence of major hemorrhage in VKA-treated patients of 1.7-3.4% per year (Schulman et al., 2008). The 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC), which contains the human coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X together with the endogenous inhibitor proteins S and C, is indicated for the urgent reversal of acquired coagulation factor deficiency induced by VKA (e.g. warfarin or coumarin) therapy in adult patients with acute major bleeding. In contrast, the 3-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (3F-PCC), which contain factors II, IX, X and only minimal amounts of factor VII, are only indicated for the prevention and control of hemorrhagic episodes in hemophilia B patients. Nevertheless, the use of 3F-PCC for correcting hemostasis following warfarin overdose has been discussed (Imberti et al. 2011, Holland et al. 2009). However, the lack of factor VII in these 3F-PCC products has raised questions about efficacy in comparison to 4F-PCC (Sarode et al. 2012). To date, no studies have directly compared 3F-PCC vs. 4F-PCC regarding their efficacy for reversal of VKA anticoagulation.

You're trying to concentrate, but your mind is wandering or you're easily distracted. What happened to the laser-sharp focus you once enjoyed? "Older people tend to have more difficulty filtering out stimuli that are not relevant to the task at hand," says Dr. Kirk Daffner, a neurologist and director of the Center for Brain/Mind Medicine at Harvard-affiliated Brigham and Women's Hospital.

Underlying conditions. Depression or sleep disorders (such as sleep apnea) can undermine your ability to concentrate. So can the effects of vision or hearing loss. "You waste precious cognitive resources when you spend too much time trying to make out what's written on a page or just hear what someone is saying," Dr. Daffner notes.

Visibly transform your skin. Accelerates skin's restorative powers with highly concentrated, targeted treatments to restore firm, bright or calm to your skin.

Fruit concentrate is "fruit with the water removed," says Caroline West Passerrello, a registered dietitian nutritionist and a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. "It retains the sugar and calories, but it loses the volume, fiber and vitamin C."

Fruit concentrate was developed in large part because lower volume makes products cheaper to ship and store. But to make it, one has to remove the pulp and skin from fruits, depriving consumers of the fiber they would get from an old-fashioned apple, according to Passerrello. Plus, making fruit concentrate requires heating fruit to remove the water, a process that destroys heat-sensitive vitamin C.

When fiber and vitamin C get squeezed out of fruit, so does much of its nutrition. Fiber helps slow digestion, so consuming fruit concentrate spikes blood sugar more quickly than munching traditional fruit. Vitamin C is a type of antioxidant that helps with a basketful of bodily functions, so losing vitamin C slashes benefits ranging from body tissue formation to immune system response.

In other words, people should view fruit concentrate as an added sugar, similar to high-fructose corn syrup, according to Vasanti Malik, a research scientist in the Department of Nutrition at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. Even if the fruit concentrate is combined with fiber in the final product, Malik says its inclusion should still raise eyebrows.

"We're seeing children's cereals that are whole grain, but then have a lot of added sugar" in the form of fruit concentrate, says Malik. "Although it's better than eating spoons of sugar, it's not great" because the sugar is included in such large amounts.

She also says fruit juices and processed smoothies can contain a lot of added sugar, with little fiber benefit. Malik notes that fruit juices in general, even those without fruit concentrate, are naturally full of sugars and calories, making them less nutritious than some might believe.

She proposes another option for the time-crunched grocery shopper: "If you pick up three granola bars at the store, pick the bar where fruit concentrate [or other added sugar] is last on the ingredient list." The last item on the ingredient list is usually the smallest in amount. "Hopefully you can find one without it," she adds.

And Passerrello says the Food and Drug Administration's updates to nutrition labels will soon make it easier for consumers like Little and the rest of us to figure out how to think about fruit concentrate. Sugar from fruit concentrate, she says, will be called out as an "added sugar."

Infant formulas generally come as ready-to-feed liquid, concentrated liquid and powder. Which type is going to work best for you is likely to depend on how much formula you plan to use, where you plan to use it and how much you want to spend.

Liquid concentrate. This is the "just add water as directed and shake" formula option. Mixing and measuring is again quite straightforward, because all brands of concentrate call for equal amounts of water and concentrate. If you intend to end up with a total of 4 fluid ounces of prepared formula, you'll need to mix 2 fluid ounces of concentrate with 2 fluid ounces of water. Of course, many people choose to mix an entire can of concentrate (13 fluid ounces) with an equal amount of water. The resulting 26 fluid ounces of now-ready-to-feed formula can be covered and put in the refrigerator to be used over the next 48 hours. While some parents find concentrate to be easier, neater, and/or more convenient than powder, it is a convenience for which you will pay more. 041b061a72


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